Educational Research Analysts
Positive multiculturalism VS. Negative political correctness

in 5th grade U.S. History books approved for 2003 local Texas adoption

— Public school textbooks should not stereotype particular groups as oppressors or victims. —
Harcourt Horizons:
U.S. History
Harcourt ©2003
The United States
Scott ©2003
Our Nation
Macmillan ©2003

Also see: Chart on American Revolution : Chart on coverage of U.S. Constitution : 5th grade US History ratings : Request more info on these books

Historical context of colonization and enslavement by Europeans
positive multiculturalism
Acknowledgment that Africans and American Indians practiced slavery long before the coming of Europeans
SE 77, col. 1, par. 3
SE 118, col. 1, par. 1, lines 6-9
positive multiculturalism
Reference to American Indian practice of slavery
SE 68, col. 2, par. 5

Explanation that Aztecs practiced human sacrifice, which Cortes opposed
SE 68, col. 2, par. 6 – SE 69, col. 1, line 4
SE 144, col. 2, par. 1, lines 1-3
positive multiculturalism
Note that Aztecs practiced slavery
SE 49, col. 2, par. 2

[ SE = Student Edition ]

Conquistadors and Indians
positive multiculturalism
No racist double standard
on this topic
positive multiculturalism
No racist double standard
on this topic
negative political correctness
Spanish stereotyped as greedy, but silence on Aztec habits of human sacrifice and cannibalism; claim that an oppor­tunis­tic Cortes humiliated a hospit­able Monte­zuma; reference to Pizarro's dupli­city toward Atahualpa; no mention of Monte­zuma's multiple duplicities toward Cortes, such as ordering a massacre of the Spa­nish at Cholula while feigning cordial­ity, or of Atahualpa secretly ordering the death of his captured brother, while he himself was Pizarro's prisoner
SE 130, par. 2
SE 131, col. 1, par. 1
SE 132, "HISTORY MYSTERY," par. 1
SE 134, col. 2, par. 1 - par. 2, line 2

17th century
New England
Indian wars
partly positive multiculturalism
No mention that Indians fought on both sides in the Pequot War and King Philip's War, but does state that King Philip's War began when Indians destroyed an English town
SE 198 – SE 199, col. 1, par. 1
negative political correctness
No specific reference to Pequot War; no explanation that in King Philip's War some Indians sided with the English
SE 247, col. 1, par. 2, lines 5 – par. 3
negative political correctness
Pequot War and King Philip's War viewed as race wars of red men vs. white men, though in fact some Indians fought alongside the English in both conflicts
SE 184 – SE 185, col. 1, line 3

Radical Reconstruction
negative political correctness
All three books refer to Southern white opposition to black civil rights. None mention abridgment of constitutional rights by the Reconstruction Acts, including taxation without representation, a standing army in peacetime without consent, juryless trials, unfree elections, and no separation of powers.
SE 483, col. 1, par. 4 – SE 485, col. 1, line 3
TE 483, right margin, "Civics and Government," lines 1-4
SE 518 – SE 519, col. 1, par. 2, line 9
SE 519, col. 2, par. 1, lines 1-6
SE 459 – 460