|| October 2011 Newsletter
of this page
To meet Texas Science standards, publishers must include naturalistic weaknesses in evolutionary theory
that shun "theistically-tainted" scientific creationism, intelligent design, and a young Earth. Under close
persistent prodding, a currently-adopted, widely-used Texas high school Biology book did precisely that,
specifically about-facing from past errors on anatomical and biochemical phylogenies. This momentous 180° correction opens the
concept of "convergent evolution" to devastating secular logical analysis.
— 1st ERROR —
The 1991 edition
of the Miller/Levine Texas high school Prentice Biology book (p. 324)
CLAIMED THAT ANATOMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PHYLOGENIES AGREE
Q: "How would the classifications of an anatomist compare with that [sic] of a biochemist?"
A: "The end result would be quite similar … [because] organisms with similar evolutionary paths would likely have homologous structures and similar DNA and RNA."
It also featured a diagram (p. 325) of 20 life forms arranged by anatomical similarity, whose caption pretended their cytochrome c biochemical similarities reinforced that anatomical phylogeny.
The objection here was
that the actual number of
cytochrome c amino acid
sequence differences among
these 20 life forms showed
that the cytochrome c of
baker's yeast – a fungus –
differs less from human
cytochrome c than it does
fungus; that baker's yeast
cytochrome c is less similar to
screwworm fly (an insect)
than to rabbit, pig, and
donkey (mammals); and that
these relationships OFTEN
CONFLICT WITH EVOLUTIONARY
PREDICTIONS BASED ON
This cladogram tracks the matrix on Table 9-7 in Evolution, by Theodosius Dobzhansky, Francisco Ayala, G. Ledyard Stebbins, and James W. Valentine(San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1977), p. 300.
** This cladogram tracks the matrix on Margaret O. Dayhoff, Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure, Vol. V, Supplement 3 (Washington, D.C.: National Biomedical Research Foundation, 1978), p. 238.
The objection here was
that if this exercise showed
how selected cytochrome
c amino acid sequences
phylogenies, it should also
show how OTHERS
contrast to anatomical
similarities, this comparison
based on biochemical
similarities in myoglobin
shows that dogs more
closely relate to two
marsupials and a monotreme
than to some other
placental mammals, and
more closely relate to a
primate than to some
— 2nd ERROR —
The 1998 version
of the Miller/Levine Texas high school Prentice Biology book (p. 275) replaced its 1991 diagram of 20 life forms with a more-selective list of cytochrome c amino acid sequences in 11 life forms,
AGAIN ALLEGING THAT ANATOMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PHYLOGENIES AGREE
Q: "As a rule, what general conclusion can you draw regarding how closely related species are and how their cytochrome-c amino acid sequences compare?"
A: "The more closely related the species, the more similar are their cytochrome-c amino acid sequences."
MILLER / LEVINE PRENTICE BIOLOGY'S SELF-CORRECTION
The 2004 revision
of the Miller/Levine Texas high school Prentice Biology book (p. 865)
TOTALLY REVERSED ITSELF
, devoting an entire page to an exercise on discrepant anatomical and biochemical cladograms:
"The anatomical and molecular data do not agree.
The greatest anatomical difference is between humans and rattlesnakes.
However, the cytochrome c sequences of these two species are very similar."
Q: "Did your two cladograms agree?"
A: "In most cases, cladograms will differ. Molecular data and anatomical data do not always lead to similar conclusions."
Q: "Could a cladogram based on anatomy differ from one based on amino acid sequences?"
This 2004 book blamed "convergent evolution" for mismatched
anatomical and biochemical phylogenies. To fully
meet new Texas Science standards, future submissions must
further explain that biochemical phylogenies often multiply
the number of transitional forms missing in the fossil record,
compared to anatomical phylogenies;
evolution" often weakens anatomical and biochemical
homologies (i.e., similar structures) as evidence of close
and that with "convergent evolution"
each conflicting phylogeny is radically different, mutually
exclusive, and equally valid, inducing skepticism over descent.
Plus Texas also recently ruled publishers must cover such
info three times in the student text narrative and in end-of-section
review exercises, end-of-chapter activities, or unit
tests, to reinforce student learning.